HITRAN is an acronym for high-resolution transmission molecular absorption database. HITRAN is a compilation of spectroscopic parameters that a variety of computer codes use to predict and simulate the transmission and emission of light in the atmosphere.
There are now over 16000 users registered on www.hitran.org
Due to the COVID19 pandemic, the ASA-HITRAN Conference in Reims, France is rescheduled to be held in 2021. New dates 25-27 AUGUST 2021.
The HITEMP database has been expanded to include methane. The data is available through the HITEMP section of the website (https://hitran.org/hitemp/), with a python tool for extracting the compressed file. Further details are described by Hargreaves et al. (2020) (doi:10.3847/1538-4365/ab7a1a).
This series of tutorials will introduce the HITRANonline website and explain how to get the most out of your HITRAN searches.
The data on this website corresponds to the HITRAN2016 edition of the database. The HITRAN2016 paper describing the new edition is available in Open Access
I.E. Gordon, L.S. Rothman, C. Hill, R.V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K.V. Chance, B.J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V.I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K.P. Shine, M.-A.H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, H. Tran, V.G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A.G. Császár, V.M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T.J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A.A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O.M. Lyulin, S.T. Massie, S.N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, O.L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S.W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S.A. Tashkun, J. Vander Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, E.J. Zak, The HITRAN2016 Molecular Spectroscopic Database, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (2017) 203, 3-69.
==> Note that we are constantly making ongoing improvements and additions to many molecular bands. Updates, improvements, and corrections to the edition are posted in the "Database Updates" panel located on the home page of the HITRAN web-site. When citing the database it is recommended to indicate if an updated version of the HITRAN2016 edition was used.
Please e-mail to us (firstname.lastname@example.org) a summary of any serious problems you encounter (or successes or suggestions).
Three articles that are very helpful in assisting users in learning how to work with new tools and parameters in the HITRAN database have recently been published in JQSRT.
1. Article describing structure and working capabilities of HITRANonline (www.hitran.org):
Hill, C., Gordon, I. E., Kochanov, R. V., Barrett, L., Wilzewski, J. S., Rothman, L. S. (2016). HITRANonline: An online interface and the flexible representation of spectroscopic data in the HITRAN database. JQSRT, 177, 4–14. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jqsrt.2015.12.012
2. Article describing working capabilities of HITRAN Application Programming Interface (HAPI) (www.hitran.org/hapi):
Kochanov, R. V., Gordon, I. E., Rothman, L. S., Wcisło, P., Hill, C., Wilzewski, J. S. (2016). HITRAN Application Programming Interface (HAPI): A comprehensive approach to working with spectroscopic data. JQSRT, 177, 15–30. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jqsrt.2016.03.005
3. Article describing implementation of the Hartmann-Tran profile in the HITRAN database:
Wcisło, P., Gordon, I. E., Tran, H., Tan, Y., Hu, S.-M., Campargue, A., Romanini, D., Hill, C., Kochanov, R.V., Rothman, L. S. (2016). The implementation of non-Voigt line profiles in the HITRAN database: H2 case study. JQSRT, 177, 75–91. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jqsrt.2016.01.024
The HITRAN support e-mail has been established and our team is ready for questions.
In addition, H2, He and CO2 broadening parameters (described by Wilzewski et al., 2016) have also been extended to all transitions of C2H2. Finally, a small number of Einstein-A coefficients and statistical weights have also been corrected for some of the bands of C2H2.
The spectral range for NO2 has been extended to include transitions between 5720-7560 cm-1, with the addition of six combination and overtone bands:
● 3ν1+ν2+ν3 and ν1+3ν3 (Lukashevskaya, et al., 2017a) ● 4ν3 (Lukashevskaya, et al., 2017b) ● 2ν1+3ν2+ν3 (Lukashevskaya, et al., 2017c) ● ν1+4ν3 (Lukashevskaya, et al., 2018) ● ν1+3ν3 (Naumenko, et al., 2019)
Users should also be aware that the 4ν1+ν3 band is moderately strong in this spectral region (relative to the additions), but it is not included as part of this update.
The model that was used to predict line broadening parameters for all bands of NO2 has been slightly revised to provide more realistic values for the high-J transitions.
The 15NO2 isotopologue of NO2 has been added to the HITRAN database for the first time. The ν3 band of this isotopologue has been included based on the line list from Perrin et al. (2015).
In addition, Einstein A coefficients and statistical weights for non-hyperfine transitions of the principal isotopologue (14NO2) have been corrected in both HITRAN and HITEMP. We would like to thank Drs. Valery Perevalov and Anastasiya Lukashevskayab (IAO, Tomsk) for bringing this issue to our attention.
The HITEMP database has now been expanded to include CH4. This line list covers 0-13,400 cm-1 and has been based on the TheoReTS line list from Rey at al. (2017) (doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa8909). "Effective lines" have also been introduced to represent continuum-like features over the temperature range of study (296-2000 K).
The CH4 HITEMP line list has been validated against experimental measurements making it the most accurate and easy-to-use line list for methane spectroscopy at high temperatures. Further details are described by Hargreaves et al. (2020) (doi:10.3847/1538-4365/ab7a1a).
Half-widths (and their temperature dependencies) associated with broadening of spectral lines of CO, N2O and NH3 by the pressure of ambient water vapor have been updated, based on revision of our paper that just appeared in JGR: atmospheres.
It was found that for spectral lines of ammonia (NH3), broadening parameters due to H2, He and CO2 pressure were accidentally removed from the database. They have now been restored. We thank Dr. Clara Sousa-Silva (MIT) for pointing this out.
Finally, some of the Hartmann-Tran profile parameters for the self-broadening for the B-band of O2 had to be divided by the factor of two, due to the differences in formalism used in original publication ( Domysławska et al, JQSRT. 155 (2015) 22–31.) and HITRAN. We thank Dr. Keeyoon Sung (JPL) for pointing this out.
Parameters associated with broadening of spectral lines by the pressure of ambient water vapor have been added to the database for the first time. In August we added broadening parameter gamma_H2O and its temperature dependence to all lines of carbon dioxide (CO2). Now we add these parameters to the lines of N2O, CO, CH4, O2, NH3 and H2S.
We remind the users that they have to create a custom output format to retrieve parameters associated with broadening by gases other than air or self. One can follow video tutorial number three for some instructions on this matter:
The HITEMP database is currently undergoing a major expansion. This latest update refers to N2O, CO, NO and NO2 with the new data available for download via:
The CO line list for HITEMP has been updated and expanded. The update is largely based on Li et al.
https://doi.org/10.1088/0067-0049/216/1/15 but with improved line positions.
The NO line list for HITEMP has also been updated, along with N2O and NO2. These are the newest additions to the HITEMP database since 2010. Further details are described by Hargreaves et al.
The NO2 line list has been updated to include new bands within the 1900 - 2400 cm-1 and 4000 - 4800 cm-1 spectral regions by using the corrected NDSD-1000 databank (Lukashevskaya et al. (2017), JQSRT 202, 37).
In addition, the pressure shifts have been updated for many transitions using a semi-empirical approach based on the measurements from Benner et al. (2004), J. Mol. Spec. 228, 593.
Details of these updates are described by Hargreaves et al.
We have substantially updated and extended the HITRAN collision-induced absorption section. The details are given in the Karman et al., paper which just appeared in Icarus.
The collision-induced absorption (CIA) data in HITRAN is available at
As advertised in the HITRAN2016 paper, we now provide spectra for radioactive isotopologues in the supplemental section:
The first linelist that has being added is that of radioactive isotopologues of carbon monoxide, namely 14C16O (iso 7), 14C18O (iso 8) and 14C17O (iso 9).
Users should be aware that the line intensities of these radioactive isotopologues do not follow the standard HITRAN convention of being scaled by natural terrestrial isotopic abundance. Instead, they are provided at an abundance of 100% because of the large variation of radioactive isotopes in different environments. It is the responsibility of the user to account for this difference when comparing with the stable isotopologue intensities.
The NO line list has undergone a substantial update for all three isotopologues (14N16O, 15N16O, 14N18O). For 14N16O, the new wavenumber range covers 0-23,730 cm-1 and includes bands with a maximum Δv=14 for the X 2Π electronic ground state. For 15N16O and 14N18O, the coverage is now up to 15,650 cm-1. The primary source of the update has been the semi-empirical work of Wong et al. (2017), MNRAS 470, 882, however new hyperfine split line parameters have also been updated from Müller et al. (2015), JMS 310, 92. Also, ab initio intensities of some of the bands have been scaled to match experimental values.
In addition, the available data for air- and self-broadening parameters have been refit to a function that performs better for high J. The pressure shifts have also been updated to extend the measurements of Spencer et al. (1994), JMS 165, 506 to higher Δv.
The format for the wavenumber parameter has been adapted to enable an increased precision for the MW transitions, as has been previously done for HNO3, PH3, O2 and NO+.
Details of these updates are described by Hargreaves et al.
The line-mixing package for CO2 had been updated, to make input line-widths consistent with the actual widths provided to the database, with an exception to when these line-widths were obtained with speed-dependent Voigt profile rather than Voigt. In that case alternative approach was used. In some regions the change results in appreciable differences corresponding to decrease of the residuals when applied to real laboratory data. The line-mixing package is available at http://hitran.org/suppl/LM/
It was discovered that the Einstein-A coefficients for all transitions of both isotopologue of phosgene were calculated erroneously in HITRAN2016. These parameters have been corrected in this update.
It was discovered that about 1500 lines with intensities of the order of 10-28 cm/molecule in the 8340-10240 cm-1 region were accidentally omitted from the database. These lines have been restored from the HITRAN 2012 edition. Also a small number of lines were removed or reassigned, fixing errors associated with different assignments of lines in the linelists that were combined together to form the HITRAN2016 edition.
Note that a very substantial update is underway to correct a number of errors associated with erroneous calculations of the statistical weights for some of the isotopologues of water vapor, especially D2. The upcoming update however will not largely affect line positions nor intensities for most of the water vapor lines in HITRAN.
The broadening parameters of CO lines due to the pressure of CO2, and especially their temperature dependencies, were updated using data from Hashemi et al, J of Molec Spectrosc (2016) 326, 60-72.
It was found that due to a programming error 19 lines (with P1e assignment) of some bands of asymmetric isotopologues of carbon dioxide had air-broadened half-width values of zero in the official release of HITRAN2016. This has been fixed now and all of these lines have appropriate values for this parameter.
In addition the pure rotational transitions of the 16O12C17O isotopologue were missing upper-state quantum numbers associated with the hyperfine splitting. This in turn caused erroneous calculation of the upper-state statistical weight and the Einstein-A coefficients. All of these weak lines have been fixed now.
Once again we would like to remind users that the 11th and 12th isotopologues of carbon dioxide are labeled as A and B respectively if one asks for the output in the ".par" format. This should be taken into account in radiative transfer codes.